Torque converter ppt

17.03.2021 By Tojalkis

By definition, an overdrive has a faster output speed than input speed. It's a speed increase — the opposite of a reduction. In this transmission, engaging the overdrive accomplishes two things at once. If you read How Torque Converters Workyou learned about lockup torque converters. In order to improve efficiency, some cars have a mechanism that locks up the torque converter so that the output of the engine goes straight to the transmission. In this transmission, when overdrive is engaged, a shaft that is attached to the housing of the torque converter which is bolted to the flywheel of the engine is connected by clutch to the planet carrier.

The small sun gear freewheels, and the larger sun gear is held by the overdrive band. Nothing is connected to the turbine; the only input comes from the converter housing. Let's go back to our chart again, this time with the planet carrier for input, the sun gear fixed and the ring gear for output. So the output spins once for every two-thirds of a rotation of the engine. This allows cars to drive at freeway speed while the engine speed stays nice and slow.

How does the Torque Converter in the automatic transmission work? - video by Softelectronic

Gas-powered vs. Electric Cars: Which Is Faster? Are manual transmissions really faster than automatics? What are manual transmission synchronizers?

Prev NEXT. This content is not compatible on this device. Related Gas-powered vs.In our article Understanding Torque Converters, we looked at the parts that make up the torque converter and had a brief introduction on the workings of each component. We will focus this article of the fluid flow within the torque converter itself.

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When the impeller is driven by the engine crankshaft, the fluid in the impeller rotates in the same direction. When the impeller speed increases, centrifugal force causes the fluid to flow outward from the centre of the impeller and flows along the vane surfaces of the impeller. As the impeller speed rises further, the fluid is forced out away from the impeller toward the turbine. The fluid strikes the vanes of the turbine causing the turbine to begin rotating in the same direction as the impeller.

As the fluid dissipates its energy against the vanes of the turbine, it flows inwards along the vanes of the turbine. It is important to note that this flow, can be quicker and more powerful at times, and there are also occasions when this flow is almost nonexistent.

There are two types of fluid flow inside the torque converter. The first is the vortex flow, and the second being the rotary flow. In the below picture, the vortex flow is a spiraling flow which continues as long as there is a difference in speed between the impeller and the turbine. The rotary flow is the fluid flow which circulates with the converter body rotation. The fluid flow is stronger when the difference in speed between the impeller and turbine is great, eg when the vehicle is accelerating.

This is called high vortex.

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During this time, the flow of fluid leaving the turbine strikes the front of the vanes of the stator and locks it on the stator reaction shaft, preventing it from rotating in the counterclockwise direction. The fluid passing through the stator is redirected by the shape of the vanes and strikes the back of the vanes of the impeller, resulting in an increase in torque over that which is provided by the engine.

Without the stator, the returning fluid would interfere with the normal impeller rotation, reducing it severly. During times of low vortex flow, the fluid coming from the turbine strikes the convex back of the vane rather than the concave face of the vane.


This causes the one way clutch to release and the stator freewheels on the reaction shaft. At this point, there is little need for torque multiplication. As the rotating speed of the impeller and the turbine become closer, the vortex flow decreases and the fluid begins to circulate with the impeller and turbine.

This flow is referred to as the rotary flow. This flow is great when the difference in speed between the impeller and turbine is small, as when the vehicle is being driven at a constant speed. This is called the coupling point of the torque converter. At the coupling point, like the low vortex, the stator must freewheel in the clockwise direction.

Should the stator fail to freewheel, it would impede the flow of fluid and tend to slow the vehicle. To read more about Automatic Transmissions and understanding their components, please view the following links:. Understanding Automatic Transmissions.

Understanding Planetary Gears. Understanding Holding Devices for Planetary Gears. Understanding Torque Converters. Understanding Converter Fluid Flows. Understanding the Lock Up Clutch.After studying Chapter 9, the reader should be able to: 1. Identify the components of a torque converter. Explain the purpose for each torque converter component. Describe the fluid flow inside a torque converter.

Explain the operation of a torque converter clutch. It has two important purposes as it transfers the engine torque to the transmission: It serves as an automatic clutch so the vehicle can be stopped with the engine running and the transmission in gear. It multiplies torque while the vehicle is accelerating to improve acceleration and pulling power. FIGURE The major parts of a four-element torque converter are the clutch disc, turbine, stator, and impeller shown in this cutaway view.

The turbine is splined to the transmission input shaft, and the stator is splined to the stationary reaction shaft at the front of the transmission.

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Courtesy of Chrysler Corporation. The pilot of the converter fits the end of the crankshaft to center the converter to the crankshaft.

Torque Converter

Some new transmissions use a shorter, elliptical, squashed converter right. FIGURE The stator one-way clutch allows the stator to rotate freely during the coupling phase, but stops counterclockwise rotation during torque multiplication.

Some early torque converters used with smaller engines are air cooled. They have a shroud with fins attached to the rear of the converter cover to force cooling air flow past the converter. It transfers power through the dynamic motion of the fluid. Most other hydraulic units transfer power through the static pressure of the fluid. These conditions shift back and forth depending on throttle opening and vehicle load.

The fluid flow around the converter is called rotary flow b. The energy remaining in the fluid striking the turbine vanes will cause the fluid to bounce back in a similar manner b. FIGURE The vortex flow, torque multiplication, and efficiency of a torque converter change as the turbine speed increases relative to the impeller. It has friction material and a damper assembly attached to it and it is splined to the turbine. While released, there is a fluid flow between the disc and the cover.

Note that the clutch disc is splined to the turbine.

torque converter ppt

Pressure to apply the clutch enters between the converter hub and the stator support right. Many clutch discs have a damper assembly at the center b. FIGURE A four-cylinder engine has two power impulses every revolution, and these impulses cause the crankshaft to speed up momentarily. During this time, the damper springs will compress to absorb the speed fluctuation. Since CVTs are infinitely variable, the torque converter is not needed once the vehicle is moving.

Therefore the converter is used to multiply the torque to get the vehicle moving from a stop, and then becomes a mechanical connection between the engine and the CVT. The torque converter clutch apply will occur at about 12 mph 20 kph and stay locked until the vehicle comes to a stop. This is done by shifting the transmission into gear and applying the brakes to hold the drive wheels stationary.

The importance of stall speed is that an engine must be able reach an rpm where enough torque is available to accelerate the vehicle, but not running so fast that there is poor fuel economy and excessive noise Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood. This test is performed using extreme caution because of the potentially dangerous conditions. The test period is limited to 5 seconds because of potential transmission damage.

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The amount of engine torque, The diameter of the converter, The angle of the impeller vanes, The angle of the stator vanes. Along with other factors, it is used to help select the correct replacement converter.

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The converter on the right has rearward or negative fin angles that will produce a higher stall speed than the one on the left, which has forward or positive fin angle. A torque converter hydraulically connects the engine to an automatic transmission and will multiply the engine torque under certain conditions.Purpose Allow the vehicle to come to a complete stop without stalling the engine Provide torque multiplication to allow smooth acceleration from a stop House a torque converter clutch which will eliminate torque converter slippage at highway speeds.

A torque converter is a type of fluid coupling There is no direct mechanical link between the input engine flywheel and the output transmission input shaft The impeller pump of the torque converter forces fluid through the turbine, which forces the turbine to turn. When there is a large difference in RPM between the impeller and the turbine in a fluid coupling, the fluid coming off the turbine strikes the impeller opposite the direction of rotation, thus slowing the impeller down robbing power.

By incorporating a stator into a fluid coupling we can overcome the problem of turbine discharge oil slowing down the impeller Stator. Relatively low impeller engine RPMs Stator is locked into place by its one-way clutch Vortex fluid flow within the converter Occurs at approx. Because the turbine discharge oil is redirected so that it hits the impeller in the direction of impeller rotation, it helps the engine turn the impeller.

Exact amount depends on the design of the impeller, stator, and turbine and impeller RPM The point at which maximum torque multiplication occurs is near the stall speed of the converter. During vortex flow the fluid is circulating from the impeller to the stator to the turbine and then back to the impeller. As turbine vehicle speed increases and approaches the speed of the impeller the turbine discharge oil is accelerated to the point that it no longer strikes the front side of the stator blades, instead it strikes the backside of the stator blade causing the stator one-way clutch to unlock and the stator to freewheel.

Since the stator is unlocked, fluid is not redirected and no torque multiplication occurs Fluid flow is rotary. As the speed of the turbine approaches the speed of the impeller fluid flow switches from vortex to rotary After the fluid is discharged from the turbine it is not redirected by the stator, instead it rotates with torque converter Front-View of Torque Converter. Stall speed is the engine RPM at which the torque converter has coupled enough that with the wheels locked the engine is not able to increase RPM any further.

Types of stall Speeds True stall This is the maximum rpm the engine can attain with the driveline completely locked Generally can only be attained with a trans-brake Brake stall This is the maximum rpm the engine can attain with the brakes applied The brakes generally will not have enough holding power to allow the engine to reach true stall speed Flash stall This is the rpm at which, when you accelerate at full throttle from a dead stop the engine RPM flashes to TCIs recommended method of testing stall speed.

Wait at least 2 minutes between brake stall tests. Vane Design Depending on the design and pitch of the blades, the impeller will scoop the most oil at a specific RPM, thus altering the stall speed. By altering the stator design, stall speed and torque multiplication ratios can be altered Aftermarket Stock.

Selecting the Proper Stall Speed Converter For non-stock engine-vehicle combinations the stock torque converter may not be optimal Work with a torque converter company to choose the correct torque converter Remember Torque converter design involves trade-offs.

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Start Free Trial Cancel anytime. Torque Converters. Uploaded by chungfung. Document Information click to expand document information Description: working principle.

Date uploaded Mar 23, Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Description: working principle. Flag for inappropriate content. Download Now.After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play.

torque converter ppt

Get the plugin now. Toggle navigation. Help Preferences Sign up Log in. To view this presentation, you'll need to allow Flash. Click to allow Flash After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Title: Torque Converters. Description: Chapter 17 Torque Converters Objectives 1 of 2 Explain the function of the torque converter in a vehicle equipped with an automatic transmission.

Tags: converters mechanical seals torque. Latest Highest Rated. Title: Torque Converters 1 Chapter 17 Torque Converters 2 Objectives 1 of 2 Explain the function of the torque converter in a vehicle equipped with an automatic transmission.

Explain how the torque converter is coupled between the crankshaft and the transmission. Identify the three main elements of a torque converter and describe their roles. Define torque multiplication and explain how it is generated in the torque converter.

Describe the overrunning clutch, lockup clutch, and variable pitch stators.

torque converter ppt

Outline torque converter service and maintenance checks. Remove, disassemble, inspect, and reassemble torque converter components. The most fundamental difference is that torque converters use curved blades, while fluid couplings and fluid flywheels use straight pitch blades. Torque converters also use stators and have the ability to multiply torque, neither of which is characteristic of fluid couplings.

The torque converter Transmits the twisting force or torque delivered to it by the engine crankshaft Multiplies engine torque when additional power is needed The amount of torque transferred from the engine to the transmission by the torque converter is directly related to engine rpm.

A normal service shop cannot disassemble them for servicing and repair.After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play.

Understanding Converter Fluid Flows

Get the plugin now. Toggle navigation. Help Preferences Sign up Log in. To view this presentation, you'll need to allow Flash. Click to allow Flash After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Title: Torque Converters. Description: Torque Converters Purpose Allow the vehicle to come to a complete stop without stalling the engine Provide torque multiplication to allow smooth acceleration from a Tags: converters torque.

Latest Highest Rated. During a brake stall of the power developed by the engine is converted in heat in the torque converter. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use. You can use PowerShow. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free.

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Torque Converters - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint - Beautifully designed chart and diagram s for PowerPoint with visually stunning graphics and animation effects. Our new CrystalGraphics Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint is a collection of over impressively designed data-driven chart and editable diagram s guaranteed to impress any audience.As shown in the figure below, there are four components inside the very strong housing of the torque converter:. The housing of the torque converter is bolted to the flywheel of the engine, so it turns at whatever speed the engine is running at.

The fins that make up the pump of the torque converter are attached to the housing, so they also turn at the same speed as the engine. The cutaway below shows how everything is connected inside the torque converter. The pump inside a torque converter is a type of centrifugal pump. As it spins, fluid is flung to the outside, much as the spin cycle of a washing machine flings water and clothes to the outside of the wash tub.

As fluid is flung to the outside, a vacuum is created that draws more fluid in at the center. The fluid then enters the blades of the turbinewhich is connected to the transmission. The turbine causes the transmission to spin, which basically moves your car. You can see in the graphic below that the blades of the turbine are curved. This means that the fluid, which enters the turbine from the outside, has to change direction before it exits the center of the turbine.

It is this directional change that causes the turbine to spin. In order to change the direction of a moving object, you must apply a force to that object -- it doesn't matter if the object is a car or a drop of fluid. And whatever applies the force that causes the object to turn must also feel that force, but in the opposite direction. So as the turbine causes the fluid to change direction, the fluid causes the turbine to spin. The fluid exits the turbine at the center, moving in a different direction than when it entered.

If you look at the arrows in the figure above, you can see that the fluid exits the turbine moving opposite the direction that the pump and engine are turning. If the fluid were allowed to hit the pump, it would slow the engine down, wasting power. This is why a torque converter has a stator. For towing, what's more important, horsepower or torque? How can a 5,pound truck tow 10, pounds?

Is it possible to increase the towing capacity of a truck?